## Wednesday, 11 September 2013

### how to find the kinetic energy of a proton

A proton has a radius of about 1 fm (10^−15 m). Use dimensional analysis with the speed of light c=3×10^8 m/s, the reduced Plank constant ℏ=1.1×10^−34 Js to estimate the kinetic energy of quarks inside a proton. Recall the conversion between Joules and electron volts, 1 eV=1.6×10^−19 J, and that MeV = mega electron volts, i.e. 1 MeV=10^6 eV.

Note that the point of this problem, and similar ones, is not just to do some conversion of numbers. The point is that once you know one scale (in this case a length scale---the size of the proton), it encodes a lot of information and characterizes the typical scales in the system (in this case the length scale also sets the energy scale).

so we have :
$$R=1fm(10^{-15}m)$$
$$c = 3*10^8m/s$$
$$h{bar}=1.1*10^{-34}J*s$$
$$V=1eV=1.6*10^{-19}J$$
$$1MeV=10^6eV$$

so we need a answer in MeV:
first we get a value in J*m:
$$a=c*h{bar}=3*10^8m/s*1.1*10^{-34}J*s=3.3e-26J*m$$

Now we need it to be in joules only:
$$b = a/R=\frac{3.3e-26J*m}{1*10^{-15}m}=3.3e-11J$$

this value to eV:
$$D = b/V=\frac{3.3e-11J}{1.6e-19J}=206250000eV$$

Finally this to MeV:
$$ANS=D/1e6=\frac{206250000eV}{1e6eV}=206.25MeV!!$$

## Tuesday, 27 August 2013

### Did I see a UFO

When I was in my granparents house then on 14august I went on th roof with the camera to picture the moon, on my side  I saw to lights revolving around each other and moving in a horizontal line back and forth, sometimes three lights appeared or sometimes 1 light, on the opposite side their were to more lights doing the same motion, so I took a picture or pictures of them but it was very difficult, successfuly I took 4 or 5 accurate photos which I enhanced:

it cannot be laser lights because whatever the light source was, it was above the clouds
it cannot be a ballon because balloons doont glow(it is brighter than the pics), not a lantern because no one knows about them in pakistan, BTW there is a military base near the house, its no spotlight too.

## Thursday, 8 August 2013

### Changing matter into energy

So like Einsteins $$E=mc^2$$ formula states that if we have any mass (m) we can convert that mass in an energy by multiplying it with the speed of light(c) squared. I read on some area that if we add 90megajoules of energy to an object then its mass increases by 1microgram!, If you see a chunk of R-candy and give it an amount of heat energy, it will start to combust and while it combusts it will lose its mass and dissapear, only abit of burnt thing is left(1/20th o the mass), So my idea is that if we give A large amount of energy in a specific form, maybe we can change the mass to energy, so like if we have 1kg of mass, einsteins formula says multiply by $$c^2$$ so maybe we collide the mass with photons with the energy of $$c^2$$ or maybe somme 300000000 photons and we can change the mass to energy,

## Wednesday, 3 July 2013

### White holes! and anti-gravitons

White holes are like anti black holes, black holes want matter to come to the event horizon and then suck stuff up but white holes dont want anything to ever cross the horizon, nothing goes out of a black hole and nothing goes in to a white hole, its like blackholes have gravitons and white holes have "anti-gravitons", like super anti-gravity!!, like if a blackhole ate a star in and a white hole is connected to that blackhole and well spits out the star in a non-star form, probably gas. im saying is that the black-hole's singularity is even the reverse singularity of a white hole, time for a picture:

now anti-gravitons are what cause anti-gravity, not the non gravity but the repelling gravity in the white holes another pic:

Or maybe when they die out by radiating for a long long time, then they turn to white holes?

## Monday, 1 July 2013

### Drake Equation

This is the strangest but simplest equation I have seen, $$N=R^{*}*f_p*n_e*f_l*f_i*f_c*L$$

R* = the average number of star formation per year in our galaxy
fp = the fraction of those stars that have planets
ne = the average number of planets that can potentially support life per star that has planets
fl = the fraction of planets that could support life that actually develop life at some point
fi = the fraction of planets with life that actually go on to develop intelligent life (civilizations)
fc = the fraction of civilizations that develop a technology that releases detectable signs of their existence into space
L = the length of time for which such civilizations release detectable signals into space

the original values were like this:

R* = 1/year (1 stars formed per year, on the average over the life of the galaxy; this was regarded as conservative)
fp = 0.2-0.5 (one fifth to one half of all stars formed will have planets)
ne = 1-5 (stars with planets will have between 1 and 5 planets capable of developing life)
fℓ = 1 (100% of these planets will develop life)
fi = 1 (100% of which will develop intelligent life)
fc = 0.1-0.2 (10-20% of which will be able to communicate)
L = 1000-100,000,000 years (which will last somewhere between 1000 and 100,000,000 years)
So if we put in the values:
first medium:
$$N=1*0.3*4*1*1*0.15*10000$$
$$N=1800 civilizations$$

Then small:
$$N=1*0.2*1*1*1*0.1*1000$$
$$N=20civilizations$$

Then even smaller:
$$N=1*0.001*0.02*0.1*0.05*0.1*500$$
$$N=0.000005civilizations$$ we are alone

finally larger:
$$N=1*0.5*5*1*1*0.2*1000000$$
$$N=50000000civi...$$

Now for aproximation:
$$N=\frac{1800+20+0.000005+500000}{4}$$
$$N\approx125455$$civili....

## Tuesday, 25 June 2013

### Update on rocket: My first smoke bomb.

Im here in my grandmas house,(a small area in rawalpindi with 6feet wide roads and hundreds of houses and shops packed together) and in a shop I found fireworks, you set them on fire and throw them and they blow, they have a silvery powder in them,(possibly alluminium powder and some explosive stuff) so I found a empty marker with no head, it was quite roughly broken so I thought thats its junk and it will be good if I blew it up! So i stuck a firework in it and blew it, well it didnt disentegrate but the roughly broken part got smooth. I had some explosives left so I broke them from the middle which is a easy way of removing the powder, and I filled the pen with it and lighted the powder after many failed attempts of lighting it. well before that to seal it from one side I stuck it in a flower pot whichs dirst compressed and sealed it, continuing my hopes was that it will launch, another dude looking at me from another house tried to warn me that it will blow(he did not know that it had an opening:)), well it sarted glowing, melting and creating small holes which were like tiny volcanic eruptions of smoke, it wasnt much but the sight was pretty, well after it all ended it was like a sticky goey, melted pile of ash and melted plastic, the sight was like a wreckage so i decided to remove the pile from my sigh so I held it and threw but I did not know that the plastic was still cooling so it stuck itself to my fingers, after counntless attempts I removed it, it had solidified by taking my coolness, and in fact I was burnt for the millionth time, (the day before I was even burnt(always on the finger never any other part.)).

## Saturday, 15 June 2013

### My thoughts on telepathy (c)

Since the we hear sounds because vibrations enter our ear through the outer ear going to the ear drum which vibrates, then the three bones(anvil,stirrup and hammer) magnify the sounds and send it to the cochlea, the vbrations move a liquid which moves tiny hairs to produce electrical signals send from the auditory nerve to the brain and we hear!, But what if we put something in the brain, like a reciever chip, and send a low frequency or a small signal, which gets itercepted by the brain directly, without the need of vibrations. One good thing is since the signals get sent at the speed of light, then someone can telepath from very far away.

BTW: The (c) is a copyright, I dont know if anyone has this idea or not, the only thing is I somehow just got this idea when I was sleeping last night.

## Thursday, 6 June 2013

### My model rockets design

after ignition the phosporus melts the AN which then reacts with sugar. Im not sure if it works.

## Wednesday, 5 June 2013

### different types of particles

MESONS:

Mesons are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by the strong interaction. Because mesons are composed of sub-particles, they have a physical size, with a radius roughly one femtometre, which is about 23 the size of a proton or neutron. All mesons are unstable, with the longest-lived lasting for only a few hundredths of a microsecond. Charged mesons decay (sometimes through intermediate particles) to form electrons and neutrinos. Uncharged mesons may decay to photons.

hadron is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force (in the same way as atoms and molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force).
Hadrons are categorized into two families:
• baryons, such as protons and neutrons, made of three quarks
• mesons, such as pions, made of one quark and one antiquark.
Other types of hadron may exist, such as tetraquarks (or, more generally, exotic mesons) and pentaquarks (exotic baryons), but no current evidence conclusively suggests their existence.

BARYON:
A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (as distinct from mesons, which comprise one quark and one antiquark). Baryons and mesons belong to the hadron family, which are the quark-based particles. The name "baryon" comes from the Greek word for "heavy", because, at the time of their naming, most known elementary particles had lower masses than the baryons.
As quark-based particles, baryons participate in the strong interaction, whereas leptons, which are not quark-based, do not. The most familiar baryons are the protons and neutrons that make up most of the mass of the visible matter in the universe. Electrons (the other major component of the atom) are leptons. Each baryon has a corresponding antiparticle (antibaryon) where quarks are replaced by their corresponding antiquarks. For example, a proton is made of two up quarks and one down quark; and its corresponding antiparticle, the antiproton, is made of two up antiquarks and one down antiquark.
Until recently, it was believed that some experiments showed the existence of pentaquarks — "exotic" baryons made of four quarks and one antiquark.

LEPTONS:
A lepton is an elementary, spin-1⁄2 particle that does not undergo strong interactions, but is subject to the Pauli exclusion principle. The best known of all leptons is the electron, which governs nearly all of chemistry as it is found in atoms and is directly tied to all chemical properties. Two main classes of leptons exist: charged leptons (also known as the electron-like leptons), and neutral leptons (better known as neutrinos). Charged leptons can combine with other particles to form various composite particles such as atoms and positronium, while neutrinos rarely interact with anything, and are consequently rarely observed.
There are six types of leptons, known as flavours, forming three generations. The first generation is the electronic leptons, comprising the electron (e−) and electron neutrino (ν
e); the second is the muonic leptons, comprising the muon (μ−) and muon neutrino (ν
μ); and the third is the tauonic leptons, comprising the tau (τ−) and the tau neutrino (ν

τ). Electrons have the least mass of all the charged leptons. The heavier muons and taus will rapidly change into electrons through a process of particle decay: the transformation from a higher mass state to a lower mass state. Thus electrons are stable and the most common charged lepton in the universe, whereas muons and taus can only be produced in high energy collisions (such as those involving cosmic rays and those carried out in particle accelerators).

BOSON:
boson comprise one of two classes of elementary particles, the other being fermions. The name boson was coined by Paul Dirac to commemorate the contribution of Satyendra Nath Bose in developing, with Einstein, Bose–Einstein statistics—which theorizes the characteristics of elementary particles. Examples of bosons include fundamental particles (i.e., Higgs boson, the four force-carrying gauge bosons of the Standard Model, and the still-theoretical graviton of quantum gravity); composite particles (i.e., mesons, stable nuclei of even mass number, e.g., deuterium, helium-4, lead-208[Note 1]); and quasiparticles (e.g. Cooper pairs).
An important characteristic of bosons is that there is no limit to the number that can occupy the same quantum state. This property is evidenced, among other areas, in helium-4 when it is cooled to become a superfluid. In contrast, two fermions cannot occupy the same quantum space. Whereas fermions make up matter, bosons, which are "force carriers" function as the 'glue' that holds matter together. There is a deep relationship between this property and integer spin (s = 0, 1, 2 etc.).

### Baryon number conservation

This law says that if there is a gazillion baryons("heavy particles") in this universe then there will always be a gazillion baryons in the universe, not one more not one less, well first of all since nothing can be made out of nothing, then we think that how were baryons made, their must have been something which was used to make them? this is a difficult question unanswered till now so scientists abandoned the question, the answer was they are just there. Now we can make protons, bu smashing two protons together but this collision creates another particle called an anti-proton which makes  it difficult to survive so since 1+1=2, then a collision and 1+1+1-1=2. but what if like hawking radiation the anti-proton gets eaten up by a black hole after the collision and the three protons happily run out of the event horizon safely, then we would have a gazillion plus one baryon and the law would be defied?

### why cant we make rocket candy from ammonium nitrate.

since rocket candy is made from heating sugar with the oxidiser(potassium nitrate), I didnt have potassium nitrate which is most recomended, so I started t make it with ammonium nitrate, I took a pan and dissolved  ammonium nitrate and sugar in it and heated, after a time a black contamination spreaded in thethe water and lots of smoke erupted from the the pan(actually I forgot how violently ammonium nitrate reacts with sugar!) the whole kitchen was engulfed in a white smoke. In the pan there were strange black structures except the r-candy. like this. :)

### How to solve the problem of heating computers.

The area where the computer stars to heat up, what if we make the internal area of the laptop airtight, with a vacuum in it, so it wont comduct heat except radiation and will reduce noise, and for cooling the chips we use a small tank of liquid oxygen and pump it round the chips in small tubes,(now you might be wondering  how to keep the oxygen liquid), well the oxygen can work even in gas form, just like in fuel rockets. (just a thought)

## Monday, 1 April 2013

### Introduction(again) to my favourite items from amazon

Now if you scroll down to the end of the page you can see the my favourite item, I will change it whenever I want so take a long quick glance at it!!!

### A telescope

The best gift anyone can give to his child is a telescope, well if he doesnt have one he can get it for himself!! I even have a telescope given to me by my father.

## Sunday, 31 March 2013

### Introducing the astore

In the astore you can find telescopes and other astronomical instruments including awsome books! Have fun buying

## Monday, 25 February 2013

### Another simulation by me!!!

http://scratch.mit.edu/projects/Shaheerniazi/3129306 on the PP-chain!

## Saturday, 23 February 2013

### A simulation of trsansit by me!!

http://scratch.mit.edu/projects/Shaheerniazi/3124422

## Friday, 22 February 2013

### Are we controlled?

Like we play games and control a person in the game, could it be possible that that game is another universe, where he even plays games controlling something, and the something and he dont know they are being controlled. So the question arises are we even being controlled? are we even a game played by a being in higher dimensions or universes?(The games name could be life?). This is like a infinite series of games and player. We are a part of a game and the ONE who controls us is God.

## Tuesday, 12 February 2013

### My thoughts on "going through walls"

Well when I was watching a lecture on cosmological principles, I had a thought, If everything takes up some space, then if we want to go through something (like a ghost), we will have to occupy no space in this universe( you should not exist in this universe, but another universe(or dimension) and somehow mentally exist in the universe you dont exist in?) The universes are as always copies of each other:

Another way to do this is die!!(with some incomplete vengence!)

A problem is that your copy will exist in that universe, so if you went personally there then you will be destroyed like plus minus!

## Sunday, 3 February 2013

### what is Astrobiology?

What is astrobiology:
Astrobiology is the study of the originevolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe: extraterrestrial life and life on Earth. This interdisciplinary field encompasses the search for habitable environments in our Solar System and habitable planets outside our Solar System, the search for evidence of prebiotic chemistry, laboratory and field research into the origins and early evolution of life on Earth, and studies of the potential for life to adapt to challenges on Earthand in outer space. Astrobiology addresses the question of whether life exists beyond Earth, and how humans can detect it if it does.

## Tuesday, 15 January 2013

### Rapid rotation o neutron star

Neutron stars spin very fast, lets fid in what time it completes on revolution.

$Formula P_{ns} = P_c(\frac{R_{ns}}{R_c})^2$

$P_{ns} = period of neutron star$

$P_c = period of core$

$R_{ns} = radius of neutron star$

$R_c = Radius of core$

Ans::

Cross-section of neutron star. Densities are in terms of ρ0 the saturation nuclear matter density, where nucleons begin to touch.

So the radius of the core will be taken as 3Km and radius of neutron star is 17Km, period of core is say 0.000007seconds

$P_{ns} = 0.0007(\frac{17}{3})^2 = 0.000335sec$

now
$R_c = 0.7Km, R_{ns} = 20Km, P_c=3.6e-6sec$

so

$P_{ns} = 3.6e-6(\frac{20}{0.7})^2 = 0.0029sec$

Now I exagerate:

$R_{ns} = 15.5Km, R_c = 0.06Km, P_c = 0.000000006sec$

so:

$P_{ns} = 0.000000006(\frac{15.5}{0.06})^2 = 0.0004sec$

## Friday, 11 January 2013

### sun

The Sun, in its T-Tauri phase, may have been losing mass at a rate of 108M/yr for up to ten million years, ending with a mass M. As a main sequence star, it loses mass at a rate of about 2×1014M/yr for ten billion years. As a red giant, it may lose up to 28% of the remaining mass. Estimate, in terms of M, the mass at the start of the T-Tauri phase, the mass of the remaining star at the end of the red giant phase. Round to two significant figures.

Yayy!! Done

First I found Mass at the

T-Tauri stage by

$M_{T-Tauri}=((M_{lost 1}*T_{1})*M_{\odot})+M_{\odot}$

where

$M_{lost 1} = 1*10^-8M_{\odot}/yr$

and

$T_{1}=1*10^{10}years$

and

$M_{\odot} = 1.989*10^{30}kg$

Then I found the mass when sun is a main sequence by

$M_{main.sequence} = ((M_{lost2}*T_{2})*M_{\odot})-M_{\odot}))$

where

$M_{lost2} = 2*10^{-14}M_{\odot}/yr$

and

$T_2=1*10^{10}years$

Finally I find the mass when sun is red giant by

$M_{red.giant} =(28/100*M_{main.sequence})-M_{main.sequence}$

then I finnally divide the

$\frac{M_{red.giant}}{T-Tauri}$